Measles vaccine: when is it given to children?
Measles is such an infectious disease that it is ill at almost any age. If the child is not vaccinated, then they often become ill at the age of 1 to 5 years. Babies are ill very rarely up to a year, because they have a small number of external contacts and they still retain passive immunity, which they received from their mother during intrauterine development. From ancient times, measles was considered an extremely dangerous disease due to high mortality, especially among children. Not so long ago in the Russian Empire, almost every fifth sick child suffered from measles, and the disease itself was better known as the plague.
Against measles, various preventive measures began in 1916. But morbidity and deaths decreased hundreds of times only after a measles vaccine was developed.
Course of the disease
Note that measles mortality remains high today. According to the World Health Organization, nearly 850 thousand children still die from measles every year around the world (think only!).
Measles is caused by a virus; the source of the spread is a sick person. The period of catarrhal manifestations is already dangerous for others, as well as the first five days of rashes. Measles has 100% contagiousness, which means that when meeting a person with measles, an unvaccinated person will certainly get sick. Children under 6 months old (especially up to three) do not get measles, as they receive passive immunity from the mother.
The virus is unstable – dies from sunlight for up to two hours. But, it has high volatility, has the ability to penetrate through ventilation systems, keyholes, door slots. In the case of measles, not only those who spoke directly with the patient, but also everyone who was on the same floor with him, are considered to be contact. The incubation period for measles is one to three weeks.
Measles begins from the catarrhal period, conjunctivitis, redness of the pharynx, and a rise in temperature are observed during the first 5-6 days. Two to three days later, or a day or two before the rash appears, small white dotted areas appear in the sky. These are spots named after the scientists who discovered them Filatov-Koplik-Belsky, they remain until the rash appears.
The second period is characterized by an increase in catarrhal phenomena, puffiness of the face, lacrimation, photophobia may appear. The temperature rise can reach 40 C, there are delusions, hallucinations, drowsiness. A maculopapular rash appears, the natural background of the skin is not changed. The staging of the rash is characteristic: the first day is the face, the second is the upper body and arms, the third day is the body and legs.
Three days later, the papular nature of the rash disappears, it becomes paler, heterogeneous, the period of pigmentation begins – from the third, fourth day of the rash. The temperature decreases, catarrhal phenomena pass, and small-scaly peeling appears.
Outpatient treatment, hospitalization is indicated only in severe cases and for epidemiological reasons. The patient is isolated, bed rest is indicated, and the treatment is symptomatic.
Disease prevention measures
Prevention – active immunization with a weakened vaccine in 15-18 months, vaccine against measles in children only healthy children. According to the latest data, immunity disappears by the age of 18 in 89% of vaccinated children, therefore revaccination is required. If you are wondering: when is measles vaccine given to children? You should be aware that the national measles vaccination calendar for children provides for revaccination of the population aged 18 to 35 years free of charge.
Unvaccinated children in contact with the patient are subjected to urgent vaccination. If there are contraindications, immunoglobulin (passive immunization) is administered until the sixth day of the incubation period. Quarantine is imposed for urgently vaccinated up to 17 days and up to 21 days – receiving immunoglobulin.
Measles vaccine when given to children
The immune system of babies, starting from a very young age, is able to successfully deal with collective attacks and a lot more harmful microorganisms. It must be remembered that in no way increases the likelihood of any adverse reactions when summing all measles vaccinations for children.
Measles vaccination needs preliminary preparation. It consists in:
limiting contacts, refraining from visiting crowded places in order to avoid infection by infections;
avoid stress for the child’s body, because stressful situations change the immune system. Sun tanning, hypothermia, climate change – all this refers to stress factors.
Possible post-vaccination conditions
Complications and side effects after the introduction of measles vaccination against measles are rare, but mild side reactions may appear in the form of:
a small rash;
increase in body temperature up to 38 C;
The manifestation of the above reactions occurs in the period from 5-6 to 12-18 days after the introduction of measles vaccination.