Scarlet fever in a child: symptoms and treatment
Symptoms of scarlet fever in a child should be known to every parent. This is an infectious disease that causes group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABA). I advise you to take this diagnosis seriously. This disease is insidious, do not take it lightly! Scarlet fever in a child can occur in a mild form, and bring the patient minor inconvenience. But it can manifest in severe form, which threatens with complications.
Even in the XVII century there were terrible epidemics of scarlet fever, they compared it no less – with the plague. Today, thanks to antibiotics from scarlet fever, no one dies, but being alert is still not out of place. Until the mid-20th century, the exact causative agent of scarlet fever was not known. Only thanks to numerous immunological and microbiological studies carried out with scarlet fever, it was possible to prove the bacterial nature of the disease. Therefore, now we have effective treatment regimens for this disease.
Scarlet fever is mainly a childhood disease, which is observed in the age category from 2 to 9 years.
If the child already had scarlet fever, then re-infection is rare. The body is already familiar with the disease and produces the appropriate antibodies. You can get sick again if the disease has not been cured to the end, or with weak immunity. Scarlet fever is transferred a second time much easier.
Where does the child get scarlet fever?
Scarlet fever is transmitted from a sick person with a manifest form of streptococcal infection (scarlet fever, tonsillitis, nasopharyngitis, etc., even with a mild form), as well as a bacteriocarrier.
contact path (touch, through toys, objects of common use);
airborne droplets (sneezing, coughing, talking).
BGSA – is the causative agent of many diseases, including tonsillitis and scarlet fever. The main danger of scarlet fever is that an untreated disease almost always results in complications. They can spread to the heart (rheumatism) or the kidneys (glomerulonephritis). Doesn’t resemble anything? With angina, the exact same consequences. Therefore, scarlet fever can be described as an ACUTE tonsillitis, but with its own peculiarity – a rash on the body.
Scarlet fever in a child: symptoms
There is a clear cyclical development of scarlet fever with a change in 4 stages of the disease: incubation, initial, rashes and convalescence. The incubation period lasts from several hours to 7 days (usually 2-4 days). Then comes the next stage in which you can observe the symptoms of scarlet fever in a child.
It captures the time interval from the onset of the first symptoms of the disease to the appearance of a rash – from several hours to 1-2 days.
The main syndromes:
intoxication: headache, fever, nausea, vomiting;
oropharynx lesion syndrome: redness of the pharynx, pain when swallowing, enlargement of the palatine tonsils (tonsils) and the appearance of a rash on the soft palate.
As I said, a rash is a common sign of scarlet fever in a child.
It is a small point rash (1-2 mm), slightly rising above the skin, does not merge with each other. The rash occurs initially on the face, neck and in the chest area, then gradually (within 1-2 days) spreads to the lower sections – stomach, back, legs.
A bright blush appears on the cheeks.
“Scarlet tongue.” At 2-4 days of illness, it becomes grainy, and after a few days, bright red.
The most active rashes “thicken” in the natural folds of the skin, mainly located on the lateral parts of the body, flexion surfaces of the arms, inner surfaces of the legs.
Elevated body temperature lasts the entire period of the rash. A drop in temperature occurs when new elements of the rash do not appear.
It is important to remember that scarlet fever is NOT pruritic. The main feature of scarlet fever is that the nasolabial triangle, sharply distinguished by its pallor, remains free from the rash.
It starts from the 2nd week and lasts up to 2 weeks. This period is characterized by changes in the skin in the form of exfoliation, lamellar peeling on the palms and feet.
Scarlet fever treatment
If scarlet fever is recognized by the child’s symptoms, then there can be no self-medication. Only a doctor can do this. Only he can give an assessment of the severity of scarlet fever in a child.
Indications for hospitalization:
early age of the child;
malformations of the heart and blood vessels;
severe forms of scarlet fever;
The choice of treatment for scarlet fever depends on the clinical picture. I can say for sure that an antibiotic / antibiotic combination will be needed!