Color blindness – types, interesting facts and a diagnostic test with pictures
Color blindness is a violation of the color perception of vision. Simply put, color blind is a person who does not distinguish between certain colors or shades. According to statistics, every tenth man on our planet is color blind. The only difference between them is the type of violation, due to the number of colors that they can recognize. In the article we will deal with the features, causes and correction of color blindness. You can pass a special test for the perception of colors, with which a deviation is detected.
The concept of “color blindness” came about thanks to John Dalton, an English physicist and chemist who himself learned about his color perception disorder as an adult at age 26. This happened due to his passion for botany. When studying a flower, he noticed that in daylight, the plant seemed sky blue to him, and in the evening with a candle, the flower turned dark red. Such a metamorphosis was not noticed by anyone around, except the scientist’s brother. Then Dalton began to realize that his vision was not in order and this phenomenon was hereditary.
John Dalton noticed oddities as early as 1794, and the name of this feature came much later. Now this lack of vision is divided into three main types.
Tritanopia (2 picture) – do not distinguish between purple. It is extremely rare.
Deuteranopia – no green. It is found in only 1% of the world’s population.
Protanopia – red and purple are not distinguished. The defect occurs in approximately 8% of men and 0.5% of women.
There is also such a thing as achromasia. In this condition, people see the world in black and white, which is an extremely rare pathology. Another particularly rare species is monochromatic, when a person sees everything in one primary color and in many of its shades.
Causes of Color Blindness
Different types of retinal cells are responsible for color perception in humans. They perceive rays of light. Some cells provide monochrome vision in black and white, while the rest of the cones provide color vision. Primary colors of the palette, such as blue, red, green, are perceived thanks to sensitive color pigments. The color signal is integrated by the retina and the corresponding part of the brain. And when mixing these three primary colors, shades are recognized. But if there aren’t any “cones”, for example, those that are responsible for the red color, the brain receives a distorted picture based on only two available colors, for example, yellow and green.
The blue color is seen by most people on the planet and in color blind people it causes fewer problems. For this reason, most instant messengers and social networks are designed in this color. Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, who also doesn’t distinguish some colors for the same reason, set fashion.
Inherited color blindness
The cause of congenital color blindness is heredity. In this case, the cones necessary for full color recognition are absent from birth or are not produced enough to clearly see the color.
The transmission of color blindness is provided by the X chromosome, which a woman passes to a child. Most often, the son inherits the defect, since the girl’s second chromosome X, taken from the pope, can compensate for the deviation. For this reason, men who do not distinguish colors due to heredity are many times more than women. For a girl to be born with a defect in the perception of colors, her mother must be a carrier, and her father a color blind.
Acquired Color Blindness
Not always the lack of perfect color perception is a defect arising for hereditary reasons. Color recognition problems can result from an injury to the eyeball and retina. For this reason, a certain number of cones is damaged, and color vision deteriorates.
Color blindness is not a sentence even for artists! Did you know that such famous brush masters as Savrasov, Vrubel, Repin, Van Gogh had this visual defect. But he did not stop them from painting magical paintings, using his peculiarity of color perception, vision of the world and people.
Can color blindness be cured?
First of all, it is necessary to understand that color blindness is not a disease, but rather a feature of vision. A disease can be considered a defect if it is acquired as a result of an injury, and not genetically inherited. In some cases, treatment can be carried out in the form of a replacement for a damaged lens. Then a person will be able to see all the colors of the rainbow again.
Hereditary color blindness is not subject to correction. The only way to see all the colors in this case are special glasses and lenses. They are selected individually depending on the type of deviation and other indications. However, such glasses may not be suitable for everyone. 10% of users may not notice the difference between their usual vision of the world and with special glasses.